LANGLOIS, Michel and TOCQUER, Gérard. "Marketing des Services; le Défi Relationnel", Gaëtan Morin Éditeur, Montréal, 1992.

Because of their specificities, service organizations require particular strategies and commercial actions. A wrong understanding of this principle can lead to dreadful management errors.

In this book, the authors describe services’ characteristics and define the meaning of quality as seen by clients and customers. They also emphasize the importance of client relations and its influence on the competitive advantage as well as the three marketing environments, namely internal, external, and transactional.

The authors propose an original take on traditional marketing planning by replacing the four “P” with the eight “A”, as they are more dynamic and relevant. Finally, we are presented with the 36 commercial fronts specific to service businesses.